Indo-European programme II
This programme consists of four courses: Indo-European nominal compounding (Fellner), Minor languages of Anatolia: Lycian and Phrygian (Kloekhorst & Lubotsky), Indo-European poetry and ritual: textual testimonies of archaic theology, cosmology and anthropology (Sadovski), Historical grammar of Hittite (Kloekhorst).
- Time slot 1: Indo-European nominal compounding (9.30-11.00)
- Time slot 2: Minor languages of Anatolia: Lycian and Phrygian (11.30-13.00)
- Time slot 3: Indo-European poetry and ritual: textual testimonies of archaic theology, cosmology and anthropology (14.00-15.30)
- Time slot 4: Historical grammar of Hittite (16:00-17:30)
Hannes Fellner (Leiden)
One of the most productive means of Indo-European nominal morphology is compounding. It also plays an important role in Indo-European poetics and onomastics. This course is dedicated to nominal compounding in all its synchronic and diachronic linguistic aspects. The course aims at providing a thorough introduction into the phonological, morphological, and syntactic mechanisms of compounding and the properties of compounds across the ancient Indo-European languages. We will focus on the classical languages, Sanskrit, Avestan, Greek, Latin, as well as the archaic branches Anatolian and Tocharian. After a short introduction into the general linguistic perspectives on compounding and the treatment of terminological issues, we will systematically explore the most prominent and interesting nominal compound types in the Indo-European branches. Based on this, we will try to address the question of what types of compounds can be reconstructed for the proto-language and how these types developed in the different branches.
Basic knowledge of Indo-European reconstruction and the methods of historical linguistics is a prerequisite. Familiarity with one or more ancient Indo-European languages is welcome.
Course documents will be provided.
Alwin Kloekhorst & Alexander Lubotsky (Leiden)
Week 1. Introduction into Lycian (Alwin Kloekhorst)
Lycian is the indigenous language of Lycia (South West Turkey) and is known from ca. 170 stone inscriptions and some coin legends dating to 500-330 BC. It is written in its own version of the alphabet, related to the Greek one.
Linguistically, Lycian is an Indo-European language, belonging to the Anatolian language family and, more specifically, to its Luwic branch. After Hittite and Hieroglyphic Luwian, Lycian is the best known Anatolian language and therefore of paramount importance for reconstructing Proto-Anatolian and, as a consequence, Proto-Indo-European.
In this course we will treat both the synchronic and diachronic grammar of Lycian, but also focus on the epigraphic skills necessary to read the Lycian inscriptions in their original script.
Week 2. Introduction into Phrygian (Alexander Lubotsky)
There are two kinds of Phrygian inscriptions: Old Phrygian, written in the Phrygian alphabet, dating from the 8th –4th c. BC, and New Phrygian, written in the Greek alphabet, dating from the 2nd–3rd c. AD. In spite of the fact that every year new inscriptions are being published, our knowledge of Phrygian is very limited. During the course we shall read the inscriptions, study the malediction formulae of the funerary inscriptions and try to draw a sketch of the Phrygian phonology and morphology. The relationship of Phrygian with Greek will have our particular attention.
There are no requirements, although familiarity with Greek or Hittite would be helpful.
Time slot 3: Indo-European poetry and ritual: textual testimonies of archaic theology, cosmology and anthropology (14.00-15.30)
Velizar Sadovski (Vienna)
The new edition of the Leiden Summer School will give us the opportunity to focus on the contribution of archaic Indo-European sacred texts to the reconstruction of inherited ideas of theogony, cosmogony and cosmology, as well as of religious practices and poetical formulae used in solemn or private rituals. Cross-linguistically, shall comment upon the relevant data of a number of parallels of (pre-)classical Greek and Latin texts with representatives of ritual and hymnal poetry of other ancient Indo-European traditions such as the Old Norse and Old Icelandic of the Eddas and sagas, Gāthic and Young Avestan hymns and liturgies, Old Indian ritual poetry and prose fro the Rig-, Atharva- and Yajur-Veda, the Cattle Raid cycle of Old Irish epics, Balto-Slavic songs, incantations and riddles, Armenian creation myths, and Anatolian sacred laws, which have often escaped the attention of the high-specialized (Classical) philologists of present day.
We shall discuss the relations between archaic Indo-European texts and their impact for the reconstruction of spiritual and social life and the various visions of the order and arrangement of the Universe, first, from theological and cosmological point of view – the complex distribution between the gods of Right-and-Order, responsible for the establishment, and the gods of Attack and Defence, protecting the forces of expansion and development, commenting upon the ritual ways of appeasing them and maintaining the Right/Rite Order in the sphere of the Sacred and in everyday’s life of the community. On anthropological level, we shall aim at sketching the “big picture” of mythological, ritual and poetic forms of classification of the Universe and systematization of religious and practical knowledge about nature and human communities in their relationship with the Sacred:
(1) Creation myths and their reproduction in daily ritual acts: (a) cosmogonic myths and their reflection in rites such as setting of the sacrificial fire, fixing the pillar of a nomadic tent, sacrificing first bites of food and drops of drinks, libations of milk into the Fire etc., (b) foundation myths of towns, settlements and tribal groups (from Kadmos’s Thebes and the Roma quadrata of Romulus and Remus up to the “Aryan homeland” of the Avesta as well as the Five Tribes of India, the Five Clans of Ireland or the Four Stems of Mabinogi etc.
(2) Sacred Chrono-logy: of divine and human generations, esp. the motifs of “chthonic” vs. “uranic” deities: here, old dichotomies such as the ones of Asuras and Devas, of Titans and Olympic deities, of Vanir and Æsir, will be re-assessed also in terms of this dialectics between sedentary establishment and semi-nomadic, moving expansion of the community, including also:
(3) Sacred Genea-logy: (a) the narrative of the change of generations (from the Hittite versions of the Kumarbi myth via the Five Ages at Hesiod up to Celtic and Germanic evidence of generational sequences), (b) the catalogues of predecessors (and descendants) of a deity or of a hero as mythological form of characterization and glorification of an extraordinary (mythical or historical!) personality,
(4) Sacred Topo-graphy – cosmological presentations such as the ones on the Homeric and Hesiodic Shields (of Achilles, of Heracles) and their parallels in other Indo-European traditions (e.g. the protection catalogue on St. Patrick’s breastplate) – and Sacred Topo-logy: mythological depiction of space by linking heavenly and earthly directions (bidimensional [horizontal], tridimensional [vertical] and pluridimensional [mystic] ones) to deities, colours, plants and other natural phenomena or ethnic and social groups (as in the delineation of the sacred space in archaic Greek and Italic (Umbrian, Old Latin) cults, in the Vedic ritual of construction of the altar and even in the Deutsche Sagen of the Grimm brothers!),
(5) Sacred Bio-logy: festivals and rituals containing classification of the vegetal and animal world according to utilitarian but also to ritual, esp. mythologically relevant principles – the Sacred Plants of the Atharvaveda, the Healing Plants of the Germanic (Old High German, Anglo-Saxon, Old Icelandic etc.) and Balto-Slavic “herbal magic”, but also the plant cosmos in the “Works and Days”, in the “Georgics”, in the Avesta etc.
(6) Sacred Physio-logy: ritual enumeration of body parts (a) in magico-medical healing rituals (with Irish, Anglo-Saxon, (Eastern) Slavic, Greek and Indic evidence); (b) in cosmological hymns depicting cosmogonies from the body parts of a primordial giant (in the Vedas and the Edda); (c) in rituals of cursing competitors in love, in court or in race (Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Avestan examples).
(7) Sacred Socio-logy: the gods of establishment (of semi-nomadic “small-cattle breeders” or semi-sedentary farmers, with their chieftains and tribal organization) vs. the gods of para- and even antisocial groups. Special sub-theme: rituals of dangerous age-groups such as the Hellenic ephebes, Italic, Germanic, Welsh/Irish, or Indo-Iranian (teenage) boy gangs – myths of ‘centaurs and amazons’, totemic and animalistic cults, deemed transformation to beasts or yonderworld beings, the Wild Host etc.
(8) Sacred Numero-logy: ritual enumeration of entities (a) as fix close numbers of elements, as in the “catalogues of (the four, six etc.) Seasons linked to other entities of the Universe (in the Veda; in the Irish Féilire of St. Adamnan of Iona etc.); as sacred triads, tetrads, pentads in multi-partite lists (Germanic, Celtic, Indo-Iranian), or (c) of regular sequences of entities, in increasing or decreasing patterns, all over the “Indo-Germania”.
(9) Sacred Areto-logy: (a) lists of Res Gestae of a deity or a hero as mythological and axiological patterns of history of creation, community, ethnicity, dynasty etc., from mythological catalogues (Herakles, Theseus) up to historical accounts of royal self-presentation (Darius the Great, Augustus etc.); (b) poetry of Peace and War: common IE collocations, lists of epithets, kenningar and names characterizing the person and deeds of a hero.
(10) Sacred Axio-logy: (a) aspects of the themes of the primordial Rightness (and its antagonist, the Wrongness) as regulator of the world’s Order, Harmony and Truth (and of the Priesthood and Sacred Kingship as guarantee of divine order on the earth); (b) the legal force of the spoken word: oaths, prayers and other uerba concepta in their significance for the comparative study of ritual speech acts as predecessors of a religious and social law system; (c) culture of Memory (theogony, cosmogony, anthropogony) between Old Irish filid and bards and Old Indo-Iranian kavi-s as Kings-Poets of divine and social Order-and-Truth.
(11) Sacred Leiturgo-logy, I: “Scari-fying Sacri-fices” – rites and poetic narratives concerning animal and human offerings for appeasing chthonic, teratomorphic and uranic deities: (a) chthonic topoi such as the one of the “severed head” from the utmost eastern Indic Yajur-Veda up to the Celts in Southern Gaul (as described by Poseidonios) and Ireland; (b) poetics of funeral rituals – like in the burial of Scyld (Beowulf 26ff.) and Beowulf’s vision of his own funerals (2799ff.) as compared with other Indo-European depictions of such liminal rites (e.g. the burial of Patroklos in the Iliad, the Vedic funeral mantras etc.) – and of the hope of resurrection; (c) teratological motifs concerning abstract forces, numina and non-personified powers influencing the daily life of humans.
(12) Sacred Leiturgo-logy, II: Theo-xenia, or rituals of hosting, esp. nourishing with ritually prepared and cooked food in festivals and everyday rites: starting with the paradigms established by Malamoud (“Cooking the world”) and by the group around Marcel Detienne and Jean-Pierre Vernant (“The cuisine of sacrifice among the Greeks”), and continuing with a series of new materials from the last three decades concerning local Greek, Roman, Baltic, Indo-Iranian and Germanic cultic practices of “theoxeny”.
(13) Sacred Poeto-logy: (a) Linguistic and stylistic forms and genres of ancient Indo-European poetry – hymn, mantra, prayer, ritual complaint, ritual conjuration, oath, cursing and blessing etc. (b) formal-stylistic figures on various language levels, especially techniques of formulation, syntax and stylistics of complex sentence structures; (c) methods of composition and their linguistic representation in specific forms: cyclic compositions, catalogues and lists, dialogic hymns etc.; (d) names and phraseology in the mirror of religion, ritual, culture, society.
(14) We shall illustrate the respective analysis with Vedic mantras and Avestan hymns, chapters of Homer and Hesiod, Greek incantations in metrical inscriptions and their literary pendants (like Attic tragedy), Old Latin ritual carmina (in their relation with the fasti), calendar-related formulae and 'uerba concepta' for legal purposes, Hittite prayers, oaths and purification hymns, inherited topoi of Balto-Slavic "Heldendichtung", Germanic spells for cursing and blessing, healing charms in Celtic.
Focus and discussion
We shall read a series of smaller or bigger portions of various Indo-European texts accompanied by relevant translations and thus available to for students still not acquainted with the languages concerned. Beside the classical lecture form, we shall aim at reaching a certain level of interactivity in class, including place for questions of special interests of participants concerning theses or papers in preparation, as well as excursive surveys of special problems in form of short papers: a few of the students (this year: max. three or four) will be encouraged to give short presentations (ca. 20 min.) on topics of their special interest and/or on more general themes relevant for the class. The main time will be dedicated to both lectures on selected text groups and discussions on how to interpret these data on the quest for the “big picture” of reconstruction. As we always underline, the Leiden summers are intended to provide the possibilities of highly intense but largely horizontal contact between students and teachers on the same eye-level, in the open and relaxed atmosphere of South Holland, of the cafés, pancake houses and beer gardens at the Rhine! Our discussions often continue long after the daily classes and the evening lectures, thus stimulating future professionals and present colleagues from different countries to become acquainted with each other's work and personalities.
Ancient Indo-European texts display whole ranges of systematic correspondences between lexemes (appellatives, esp. epithets of gods and humans, or proper names such as theonyms and anthroponyms), on the one hand, and elements of free syntax, on the other: phraseological entities and especially formulae of the language of (ritual) poetry, as reflection of common Indo-Iranian and Indo-European heritage of archaic “Dichter- and Ritualsprache”. A special discipline of Indo-European studies seeks to display this unity of phraseology, word-formation, poetical stylistics and onomastics and to take the knowledge won by this research as a solid basis for studies of ancient realia, as well as for better understanding of the history of mythology, ritual, and religion of the peoples and communities concerned. The present class aims at presenting a part of this extremely rich phraseological and onomastic material, in form of a thematically organized conspectus illustrated by some "praeclara rara" that intend to focus the attention of participants – especially the ones completely new in the class (and in Indo-European poetics) but also the ones who have been visiting the various Dichtersprache courses through the years – on the current development of studies and methods as well as on brand-new themes that arose only in the last few decades.
Alwin Kloekhorst (Leiden)
Hittite is the language of the Hittite Empire that ruled over large parts of Anatolia and Syria from 1650-1200 BC. It is written in the cuneiform script on some 30,000 pieces of clay tablet excavated in the Hittite capital Hattusa. It is not only the oldest attested Indo-European language, but also the best known language of the Anatolian branch, which is nowadays regarded as the branch that split off first from the Proto-Indo-European mother language (the so-called 'Indo-Hittite' hypothesis). The importance of Hittite for Indo-European linguistics therefore cannot be underestimated.
In this course, students are offered a structural and analytical approach to Hittite historical grammar. The focus will mainly be on phonology (especially the analysis of the cuneiform writing system) and morphology (nominal inflection, mi-vs. hi-conjugation, etc.), and the arguments in favor of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.
A basic knowledge of Hittite and Indo-European linguistics is required.